All-sky airglow images obtained by cooled CCD camera. For the data at Shigaraki (imagers 1 and 2 for all data and imager 3 up to September 1998), upward is toward the north and leftside is toward the east. For the data at Rikubetsu (imager 3 after October 1998), upward is toward the south and leftside is toward the west for October 20, 1998 - March 31, 1999, while upward is toward the north and leftside is toward the east for after April 1, 1999. Twelve images are sampled with an equal interval to show airglow variation of each night. Each image indicates fluctuations (%) from the average image which are obtained by averaging five successive images around the plotted time.
Note: There are several lack of images (dark or white images in the plots) during a night, probably because of some problem in the data transfer from the camera to the computer. We have not fixed the problem yet.
Note: Camera No.1 often generates artificial wave pattern, probably caused by some noise embedded on the image data. The wave pattern is very weak in the original images, but is enhanced due to subtraction of average image.
The bottom two panels show intensities and rotational temperatures of O2 Atmospheric (0-1) band (solid lines) and OH Meinel (6-2) band (dashed lines) emissions measured by the Spectral Airglow Temperature Imager (SATI) (average of all azimuth angles) at Shigaraki (35N, 136E), Japan. The middle panel indicates background intensity around the O2 (solid line) and OH (dashed line) lines by which we can infer the sky condition (high background means cloudy sky). The top four panels show intensity and temperature deviations (%) at twelve azimuthal sectors from the average values of all azimuthal angles for each time.
TILTING PHOTOMETER No.1 and No.2
Intensity variations of OH Meinel (6-2) (channel 1, 846.5nm and 843.0nm for the photometer 1 and 843.0nm and 839.9nm for the photometer 2) and OI (channel 2, 557.7nm for the photometer 1 and 630.0nm for the photometer 2) airglow emissions observed by the meridian-scanning tilting photometer No.1 and No.2. The meridian scanning is for five zenith angles from -74.88 (deg) (northward) to +74.88 (deg) (southward) with a time resolution of 10 min (1-min for OI 557.7nm). Line spectra obtained every hour by taking 1-min full-tilt data at the scan angle of 0 (deg) (zenith) are also shown in the right side. Top four panels show dark noise (mV) of the photomultiplier, temperature of the interference filters (C), and background intensity (R/nm) for two channels.
TILTING PHOTOMETER No.3
Intensity variations of Doppler-shifted Hydrogen Balmer beta line (485.1nm, channel 1) and N2+ First Negative line (427.8nm, channel 2) measured by the meridian scanning tilting photometer No.3. The meridian scanning is for three zenith angles from -74.88 (deg) (northward) to +74.88 (deg) (southward) with a time resolution of 10 min. Middle panels show dark noise (mV) of the photomultiplier, temperature of the interference filters (C), and background intensity (R/nm) for two channels. Line spectra obtained every 10-min for each zenith angle are shown in the top.
Bottom two panels indicate the estimated neutral wind velocity by the interferometer. The interferometer takes four fringes for four directions (N, E, S, and W, zenith angle = 50 deg) every hour. The fringe pattern is imaged onto two cooled-CCD camera for 557.7nm and 630.0nm, separately. The wind velocities are obtained from these four directional fringes and for inner and outer fringes of the fringe image. The other panels indicate, from top to bottom, directional wind velocity, etalon gap drift estimated from sky fringe data (solid and long-dashed curves) and frequency-stabilized laser fringe data (short-dashed curves), standard deviation of Gaussian fitting to the observed fringes, and maximum peak count of the fringes. These panels show validity of the estimated wind velocities in the bottom two panels. For details of these parameters, please contact K. Shiokawa at shiokawa @ stelab.nagoya-u.ac.jp. Note that the plotted data are preliminary values.
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